The Phoenicians: an almost forgotten people
The Phoenicians inhabited the region of modern Lebanon and Syria from about 3000 BC. They became the greatest traders of the pre-classical world, and were the first people to establish a large colonial network. Both of these activities were based on seafaring.
The trading and seafaring skills of the Phoenicians resulted in a network of colonies, spreading westwards through the Mediterranean. The first was probably Citium, in Cyprus, established in the 9th century BC. But the main expansion came from the 8th century BC onwards, when pressure from Assyria to the east disrupted the patterns of trade on the Phoenician coast.
Trading colonies were developed on the string of islands in the centre of the Mediterranean – Crete, Sicily, Malta, Sardinia, Ibiza – and also on the coast of north Africa. The African colonies clustered in particular around the great promontory which, with Sicily opposite, forms the narrowest channel on the main Mediterranean sea route. This is the site of Carthage.
Carthage was the largest of the towns founded by the Phoenicians on the north African coast, and it rapidly assumed a leading position among the neighbouring colonies. The traditional date of its founding is 814 BC, but archaeological evidence suggests that it was probably settled a little over a century later.
The subsequent spread and growth of Phoenician colonies in the western Mediterranean, and even out to the Atlantic coasts of Africa and Spain, was as much the achievement of Carthage as of the original Phoenician trading cities such as Tyre and Sidon. But no doubt links were maintained with the homeland, and new colonists continued to travel west.
From the 8th century BC, many of the coastal cities of Phoenicia came under the control of a succession of imperial powers, each of them defeated and replaced in the region by the next: first the Assyrians, then the Babylonians, Persians and Macedonian Greeks.
In 64 BC, the area of Phoenicia became part of the Roman province of Syria. The Phoenicians as an identifiable people then faded from history, merging into the populations of modern Lebanon and northern Syria.
Chiến thuật để làm dạng bài “True/False/Not Given & Yes/No/Not Given” trong kỳ thi IELTS
1. Gạch chân chủ thể và hành động/ trạng thái trong mỗi câu hỏi, và để ý đến những từ chỉ số lượng như ‘all’, ‘most’, ‘only’, v.v.
2. Xác định xem chủ thể này và hành động/trạng thái này có xuất hiện trong bài không.
3. Nếu chủ thể và hành động/trạng thái này không xuất hiện trong bài, chọn NOT GIVEN
4. Nếu chủ thể và hành động/trạng thái này xuất hiện trong bài thì chọn một trong hai đáp án TRUE hoặc FALSE
5. FALSE là khi hành động/ trạng thái này hoàn toàn không đúng
6. Thông tin trong câu hỏi sẽ xuất hiện lần lượt trong bài đọc
Exercise 1: Learn 10 new words
- inhabit (v): sinh sống
- establish (v): thành lập
- seafaring (n): việc đi biển
- colony (n): thuộc địa
- spread (v): mở rộng
- pressure (n): áp lực
- found (v)= establish: thành lập
- leading position (n): vị trí dẫn đầu
- achievement (n): thành tựu
- doubt (n): sự nghi ngờ
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
- Problems with Assyria led to the establishment of a number of Phoenician colonies.
- Carthage was an enemy town which the Phoenicians won in battle.
- Phoenicians reached the Atlantic Ocean.
- Parts of Phoenicia were conquered by a series of empires.
- The Phoenicians welcomed Roman control of the area.